Question: Give some specific references to the deity of the Son.
The Son is true, essential God precisely because He is the Son of God, who from eternity was generated from the divine essence of the Father (John 1:2, Romans 9:5, Hebrews 1:3, John 17:5) “Now, Father, glorify Me together with Yourself, with the glory which I had with You before the world was.” See also Romans 1:4 and Jeremiah 33:16.
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 2 He was in the beginning with God. 3 All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being. John 1:1-3
For I could wish that I myself were accursed, separated from Christ for the sake of my brethren, my kinsmen according to the flesh, 4 who are Israelites, to whom belongs the adoption as sons, and the glory and the covenants and the giving of the Law and the temple service and the promises, 5 whose are the fathers, and from whom is the Christ according to the flesh, who is over all, God blessed forever. Amen. Romans 9:3-5
God, after He spoke long ago to the fathers in the prophets in many portions and in many ways, 2 in these last days has spoken to us in His Son, whom He appointed heir of all things, through whom also He made the world. 3 And He is the radiance of His glory and the exact representation of His nature, and upholds all things by the word of His power. Hebrews 1:1-3
Paul, a bond-servant of Christ Jesus, called as an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God, 2 which He promised beforehand through His prophets in the holy Scriptures, 3 concerning His Son, who was born of a descendant of David according to the flesh, 4 who was declared the Son of God with power by the resurrection from the dead, according to the Spirit of holiness, Jesus Christ our Lord, Romans 1:1-4
16 In those days Judah will be saved and Jerusalem will dwell in safety; and this is the name by which she will be called: the Lord is our righteousness.’ Jeremiah 33:16
Second, the deity of Christ is easy to prove from creation (Proverbs 8:30). John 1:3: “All things were made through Him, and without Him nothing was made.” See also Colossians 1.
Then I was beside Him, as a master workman;
And I was daily His delight,
Rejoicing always before Him, Proverbs 8:30
15 He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation. 16 For by Him all things were created, both in the heavens and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities—all things have been created through Him and for Him. 17 He is before all things, and in Him all things hold together. Colossians 1:15-17
Third, the deity of Christ can be proven from the fact that He spoke with the patriarchs before He had come yet in the flesh. Everything that is said in the Old Testament about the true God Jehovah and His works in and toward all creatures is said as much about Christ as about the Father and the Holy Spirit and thus proves the deity of Christ. When it says that Jehovah, the eternal God, led the people out of Egypt and that the people tempted the true God, the Holy Spirit through Paul (1 Corinthians 10:9) says that it was Christ: “Let us not tempt Christ, as some of them tempted Him, and were destroyed by serpents.” And John 8:58: “Truly, truly I say to you, before Abraham was, I AM.”
Fourth, it follows that He is one true God from the fact that one is supposed to believe in Him. In John 8:24: “If you do not believe in me, you will die in your sins.” John 14:1: “You believe in God, believe also in me.”
Fifth, it can be proven from the calling and seeking that comes forth from human hearts, which according to Scripture is directed toward the Son as the true God. Acts 7:59: “They stoned Stephen as he was calling, Lord Jesus, receive my spirit.” Likewise Thomas (John 20:28) “My Lord and my God.” 1 Corinthians 1:2: “All here who call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ.” It is ever certain that one is to worship God alone as the only one who knows the heart. It must follow, therefore, that the Son is true God.
Caspar Olevianus, A Firm Foundation, pp. 18, 19